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Hydrogen peroxide

Nguva: 2021-04-29 Hits: 132

Pure hydrogen peroxide imvura isina ruvara inosanganiswa nemvura. Inowanzo kupihwa se40%(w/w) mhinduro asi inowanikwawo kusvika pa70%(w/w). Inonyanya kushandiswa se bleach.

 

Kushandiswa kwehydrogen peroxide

Iyo bleaching maitiro ehydrogen peroxide anoshandiswa mumaindasitiri mazhinji. Zvichida kushandiswa kwayo kwezuva nezuva kwezuva nezuva kuri muzvigadzirwa zveparidzi zvinoshandiswa pakugeza zvipfeko, semuenzaniso mune mamwe maitiro eVanish TM. Huwandu hukuru hwehydrogen peroxide hunoshandiswa kugadzira sodium perborate uye sodium percarbonate, iyo inoshandiswa senge bleaching agents mune mvura uye yakasimba detergent. Sodium perborate, NaBO3.4H2O, inogadzirwa nekuwedzera hydrogen peroxide kune mhinduro ye sodium metaborate uye sodium hydroxide. Sodium percarbonate inogadzirwa nekuwedzera hydrogen peroxide kune mhinduro ye sodium carbonate.

Mufananidzo 1 Kushandiswa kwehydrogen peroxide.

 

Mufananidzo 2 Chiredzi chinokwanisa kudya murwizi rwakambosvibiswa rwakacheneswa nekuchirapa nemushonga wehydrogen peroxide.
Nemvumo yakanaka yeSolvay.    

Kunyange zvazvo kushandiswa kwayo mumishonga yekuchenesa kunopa huwandu hwakawanda hwehydrogen peroxide, yakawanda inoshandiswa mukugadzirisa pepa rebleach (inowedzera kupenya kwayo), pulp yehuni uye machira. Uye nguva pfupi yadarika, zvidyarwa zvakakura kwazvo zvakauya parukova muAntwerp (Belgium) uye kunzvimbo yemaindasitiri paMepu Ta Phut (Thailand). Chirimwa chikuru chechitatu chiri kuvakwa pamhenderekedzo yegungwa yekumabvazuva kweSaudi Arabia, paPersian Gulf, paJubail. Miti yese mitatu inoburitsa hydrogen peroxide iyo ichashandiswa kugadzira epoxypropane (propylene oxide) neiyo yakananga oxidation yepropene. Epoxypropane icha, zvakare, inoshandiswa kunyanya kugadzira polyurethanes.

 

Mufananidzo 3 Maonero eMan Ta Phut petrochemical complex paGulf of Thailand, pedyo nemuganhu neCambodia, Chirimwa chekugadzira hydrogen peroxide ichangobva kutumirwa munzvimbo yakaoma. Inokwanisa kugadzira matani anopfuura 330 000 ehydrogen peroxide pagore, chirimwa chikuru chakadaro munyika. Mufananidzo uyu unoratidza shongwe dze distillation dzinoshandiswa kupatsanura alkanes kubva kugasi rechisikigo. Iyo hydrogen inodiwa kugadzira hydrogen peroxide inotorwa kubva mumethane mugasi rechisikigo.
Nemvumo yemutsa yeRudo Krittaya (Wikimedia Commons)    

Kugadzirwa kwegore negore kwehydrogen peroxide

(inoratidzwa seH2O2 100%)

Nyika 4.3 miriyoni tonnes1    

China 1.5 miriyoni matani2    

US 400 000 tonnes2    

Belgium 300 000 tonnes2    

Thailand 300 000 tonnes2    

Canada 200 000 tonnes2    

Data kubva:
1. Merchant Research and Consulting Ltd. 2015
2. Zvinofungidzirwa kubva Merchant Research and Consulting Ltd. 2015

Kugadzirwa kwehydrogen peroxide

Inopfuura 99% yehydrogen peroxide inogadzirwa neautoxidation process.

Matanho makuru ndeaya:
a) hydrogenation yeanhraquinone
b) oxidation yezvinoguma anthraquinol
c) kubviswa kwehydrogen peroxide solution
d) kucheneswa uye kuiswa kwehydrogen peroxide

Mufananidzo 4 Maonero echirimwa chekugadzira hydrogen peroxide muLeuna, pedyo neLeipzig kuGermany.
Nemvumo yakanaka yeArkema.    

 

The Process

Maitiro acho akapfupikiswa mumufananidzo 4.

(a) Hydrogenation yeanthroquinone

Iyo 2-ethyl inobva kune anthraquinone inowanzo shandiswa mukuita.

Mhinduro ye 2-ethylanthraquinone mune yakasanganiswa solvent system ine isiri-polar hydrocarbon uye polar solvent, uye kumiswa kwe nickel kana palladium-based catalyst pane yakasimba tsigiro, iri hydrogenated uchishandisa hydrogen gasi pane ca 320 K. kune 2- alkylanthraquinol inoitika. Iyo catalyst inobviswa nekusefa uye inoshandiswa zvakare.

(b) Oxidation yeanthraquinol

Mushonga we 2-ethylanthraquinol unobva waitwa oxidized nemhepo kune hydroperoxide, iyo inopindira mumvura kuti igadzirise 2-ethylanthraquinone uye ibudise mhinduro yakasvibiswa yehydrogen peroxide.

Mufananidzo 5 Kugadzira hydrogen peroxide uchishandisa 2-ethylanthraquinone.

Saka mhinduro yese ndeye:

 

Mufananidzo 6 Iyo oxidiser unit yekugadzirwa kwehydrogen peroxide paJarrie, kumaodzanyemba kweGrenoble, France.
Nemvumo yakanaka yeArkema.    

(c) Kubviswa kwehydrogen peroxide solution

Mvura inowedzerwa kubvisa peroxide semushonga wemvura une 40% yehydrogen peroxide. Iyo organic solvent layer inodzokororwa kune iyo hydrogenation unit kuti iwedzere kuita.

(d) Kucheneswa uye kuiswa kwehydrogen peroxide

Iyo aqueous hydrogen peroxide solution inogadziriswa neorganic solvents uye nemhepo iri kupomba kuti ibvise zvasara quinone nezvinonyungudutsa uye kugadzira chiyero che40%. Mamwe maapplication anoda yakakwira yekumisikidza chigadzirwa icho chinogadzirwa ne vacuum concentration kana distillation kusvika kumazinga anosvika 70%.

Hydrogen peroxide mune yayo yakachena chimiro yakagadzikana. Nekudaro, kana ikaunzwa mune zvimwe zvinosvibisa (kunyanya heavy metals) inogona kuora. Nokudaro, stabilizers inowanzowedzerwa kune chigadzirwa. Ivo vanoita nekuomesa nechero twumiteva twekuchinja kwesimbi maion aripo izvo zvingakonzeresa kuparara kwehydrogen peroxide. Yakajairika stabilizers sodium stannate (IV) (iyo hydrolyzes kune tini (IV) hydroxide) uye akasiyana phosphates.

 Mufananidzo 7 Mushonga weHydrogen peroxide uri kuburutswa, wafamba kubva kwawakagadzirwa. Iyo inoshandiswa kugadzira hydrazine. Hydrazine inoshandiswa sepropellant mumasatelliti akawanda uye sefamberi ye sodium azide (gasi-inogadzira mumiririri mumabhegi emhepo) uye yemhando dzakasiyana dzemishonga yezvipembenene.

Nemvumo yakanaka yeArkema.

   

   


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